Choosing the right yarn
Precot’s yarn has been widely appreciated in the textiles industry by prominent fabric manufacturers and knitted garment manufacturers, domestically and worldwide. We are one of the leading cotton yarn manufacturers in India and our cotton products are well known for their contamination free 100% cotton ring spun & compact yarn.
Yarn and the history of yarns
Yarn is a collective term for linear assemblies of fibers that are twisted together to impart strength. Fibers that are laid together to form a continuous strand are also referred to as yarn.
Yarns shaped history :
There should be a need for yarns in the first place, and the necessary source materials should be available in reasonable quantities, to make yarns. The domestication of cotton should have catalyzed the use of cotton as clothing material. Cotton is being cultivated and used to make fabrics for at least 7,000 years.
Making of yarn
Spindle and whorl :
In the initial years, yarn was spun on a spindle and whorl. With the help of a spindle which is a rounded stick, fibers are attached and twisted. A whorl acts as a weight attached to the spindle that helps in rotating. The fibers were pulled manually from a bundle of carded fibers. By rotating the spindle downward, the fibers are twisted, and the yarn is spun as the spindle pulls away from the bundle of fibers. The spinner winds the yarn around the spindle to secure it and then starts the process again when the spindle reaches the floor. The process is repeated until all of the fiber has been spun or the spindle has been filled.
Spinning wheel :
A major improvement in yarn manufacturing happened with the invention of the spinning wheel. A hand-driven wheel is connected to a horizontally mounted spindle with the help of a circular band. The thread can be twisted and wound simultaneously.
A series of spindles :
A series of spindles set in a row was invented later that enables one operator to produce large quantities of yarn.
Ring Frame :
The ring frame is widely used today and involves hundreds of spindles mounted vertically inside a metal ring. Currently, natural fibers are spun with the open-end system, which draws the fiber into a rapidly rotating cup and pulls it out on the other side.
Types of yarn
Different types of yarn are used for different activities or processes in making the final fabric. The properties of the finished yarn are based upon the desired method of application. Yarns used for weaving have a tight twist, smooth surface, and lengthwise strength. They are engineered to be durable, strong, and not so stretchable. Yarns used for weaving are sold in a cone.
On the other hand textile yarns designed for knitting have a looser twist, more elasticity, and a softer feel. Knitting yarn is commonly sold in a ball or skein. The structure of the fiber used gives the different types of yarn unique and beneficial properties.
Significance of yarn
High-performance yarns used in woven and knitted fabrics are increasingly chosen for their design and distinctiveness. Yarn manufacturers embark on a quest for product range and quality. The yarn has significant relevance to the final fabric.
Let us discuss the important parameters to choose the best yarn.
How to choose the right yarn ?
Few measures that are considered for yarn quality requirements are :
Evenness or Yarn Count
Yarn count refers to the thickness of yarn and is determined by its mass per unit length. Yarn variation refers to the variation in yarn count along its length. It is the evenness of staple spun yarn a major concern. Continuous filament yarns have no variation in linear density. A yarn with poor evenness will have thick and thin places along yarn length and the possibility of twist occurrence in the thin places of yarn is high. This contributes to variations in strength, yarn diameter, or thickness, which often adversely affect the appearance of the resultant fabrics.
The tensile property of textile yarns is a crucial parameter in determining the suitability for any particular application. It is therefore of utmost importance to determine the breaking strength characteristic accurately.
The process of winding provides an opportunity to monitor for knots, thin places and weak spots. An agreed limit of knots per cone is usually set and cones exceeding this prescribed limit is usually ejected.
Yarn lubricationThe type and level of yarn lubrication determine the coefficient of friction of the yarn and have a direct influence on the number of yarn breakages.
Fibers that are seen out of the main body of the yarn are called hairiness. Yarn hairiness is linearly related to the count of the yarn, i.e. there are more hairs in a fine yarn compared to a coarse yarn of the same type.
The properties of cotton yarn are influenced by important factors such as
- Fiber properties,
- Yarn construction parameters and
- Spinning methods and production technology.
It can be stated that fiber properties present the main influencing factors. Precot manufactures yarns and threads made from organic, BCI and normal cotton as well as polyester cotton blend. Also, we know the importance of understanding the fiber properties in detail to carry out the yarn engineering and production processes properly and effectively.